ancestral parents of all human beings according to Islamic belief
Muslim understandings of Adam and Eve, the first human beings, are based on the qUran, the hadith, and other religious texts. Muslims also
regard Adam as the first of a series of prophets that ends with mUhammad. Biblical and later Jewish and Christian stories about Adam and Eve were already familiar to arab peoples at the time Islam began in the seventh century, and these stories continued to develop in their new Arabic-
Islamic setting thereafter. According to the Quran, God created Adam
from clay (Q 7:12) and gave him life by filling him with his spirit (ruh, Q 15:29). God appointed him to be his deputy (caliph) on Earth, to which
the angels objected because of their fear that he would cause trouble and bloodshed (Q 2:30). God had Adam prove his superiority to them by teaching him the names of everything (Q 2:30–32). The angels finally bowed down to Adam, except satan, whom God expelled from heaven for his disobedience (Q 2:34, 7:11–18). The Quran does not mention Eve (Hawwa) by name, but it does talk about Adam’s “wife” (Q 20:117). She was
created from Adam (Muslim commentators say from his rib), and they lived blissfully together in paradise, where they were allowed to eat whatever
they wished except from the tree of immortality (Q 7:189, 2:35, 20:120). Muslim commentators speculate that this may have been a fig tree, a grape
vine, or even wheat. Both Adam and Eve violated God’s taboo after being misled by Satan (not a serpent), thus committing the first sin. For punishment, they were expelled from paradise and sent down to Earth, where they and their descendants were to live, die, and be resurrected (Q 7:20–25, 20:121–123, 2:36). Despite this punishment, Muslims
do not hold to a doctrine of original sin, which many Christian denominations in the West believe humans have inherited from Adam and
Eve. Rather, Islamic tradition holds that God forgave Adam, allowing him to repent and providing him guidance toward salvation (Q 2:37–38).
After the Fall, according to Islamic tradition, Adam landed on Mount Nawdh in India (or Sri Lanka), where he initiated the first crafts; Eve
landed in Jidda, Arabia. Some say that the city of Jidda, which means “grandmother,” was actually named in memory of Eve. Adam and his wife were reunited when the angel gabriel brought Adam to mecca for the first time to perform the haJJ. As in the Bible, Eve gave birth to Cain and Abel, and Cain later murdered his brother out of jealousy because
God accepted Abel’s sacrifice and not his own (Q 5:27–32). Legendary accounts say that Adam and Eve gave birth to 20 sets of girl-boy twins,
from which all the world’s peoples are descended. According to Shii tradition, Adam and Eve were given a premonition of the martyrdom of their descendant hUsayn ibn ali (d. 680), the prophet Muhammad’s grandson, and they were the first to express grief on his behalf. Sufis and others, on the other hand, have looked to when, prior to their existence, the children of Adam were brought forth from his loins to testify to God as their lord (see Q 7:171). This was intended to show that worship of one true God was inherent in human nature.